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Influence the cryptologic future by sharing our educational resources, stimulating new knowledge, & commemorating our heritage.

1892: Birth of Philip Johnston - whose idea to use the Navajo language as a code during WWII would save countelss lives.

Saturday, September 17, 2022

17 September 1892: Birth of Philip Johnston, man behind the proposal to use the Navajo language as a code in WWII.

From a very early age, Philip Johnston fell in love with the Navajo language and by the age of five he had learned the language well enough to serve as a translator for his missionary parents. At nine he served as translator for a Navajo delegation that went to Washington, DC to lobby for Indian rights.

Johnston served in WWI during which American Indians, primarily Choctaw Indians, were used as code talkers with positive results. However, after the war, it was determined that the codes and languages of the Indians had been compromised and that the idea was no longer of any use. However, Johnston knew the Navajo language was unique and persisted in his efforts to persuade the U.S. Marine Corps to utilize the Navajo language to provide unprecedented security and to protect military communications.

The Marine Corps conducted a test of the project at Camp Elliot in California and the results were impressive. Only 30 Navajo men were approved for the first group, but by VJ Day, more than 400 Navajos would work in the program. Despite his age (in his 50s), Johnston wanted to be involved with the project and assist with training. Thus, the Marine Corps allowed him to enlist at the rank of Staff Sergeant.

Some may have thought the language itself would provide enough security, but the Marine Corps decided to make the code virtually unbreakable by further encoding the language with word substitution. The code was then committed to memory. The training was intense and resulted in a code that was undecipherable to anyone but the Code Talkers.

Although 13 never returned from the war, the brave Code Talkers who lived had the privilege of knowing that they played an indispensable role in protecting critical information from the enemy and in saving countless lives.

In 1982, President Ronald Reagan declared August 14th "National Navajo Code Talker Day" to honor their service to the nation. In 2013, the Native American Code Talkers were inducted (as a group) into the NSA/CSS Cryptologic Hall of Honor.

But today we remember Philip Johnston, whose dedication and determination to his idea of using the Navajo language as a code language, helped to save the lives of countless U.S. marines.

See the link below for an NSA pdf brochure about Philip Johnston and the Navajo Code Talkers.

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On This Day In History


  • First Combat Employment of Native American (Choctaw) Codetalkers.

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The NCF's Vision is to Influence the cryptologic future by sharing our educational resources, stimulating new knowledge, and commemorating our heritage.

The Foundation provides exceptional cryptologic programs throughout the year, encourages young minds to explore cryptology and cyber education and careers,  hosts educational, cryptology-related exhibits at various community events, and honors the people— past, present, and future—whose contributions to our national security protect and make possible our way of life.

The NCF also provides needed support to the National Cryptologic Museum (NCM), the first public museum in the U.S. Intelligence Community. Located adjacent to the National Security Agency (NSA) in Maryland, the NCM houses a unique and priceless collection of artifacts that represent our Nation's history in code making and code breaking, as well as a world class library of cryptologic media. The NCF acquires the best artifacts for the Museum and supports new educational and interactive exhibits.

As part of the Foundation's partnership with NSA to build the Cyber Center for Education and Innovation - Home of the National Cryptologic Museum (CCEI-NCM), the NCF also serves as a leader in the field of cybersecurity - striving to provide the best in educational resources and programs.

The NCF has a three-part mission to Educate, Stimulate, and Commemorate. Learn more about our MISSION.